Issue: № 6/1, 2020
Introduction. In many countries around the world, globalization is accompanied by the intensification of clustering processes, which is recognized as the best opportunity to strengthen and develop small and medium-sized businesses, increase the competitiveness of enterprises in the development of international relations and interregional partnerships. Cluster formations are relevant for developed countries, as well as for those in the development stage, in which small and medium-sized businesses are the basis of the economy, provide the production of the bulk of GDP and provide employment for a significant part of the working population.
Purpose. The article is devoted to the review of the experience of developed countries in the implementation, support and development of clustering as the best opportunity to strengthen and develop small and medium-sized businesses, increase the competitiveness of enterprises, the formation of strong international ties. The study aims to assess the world experience in terms of formation and implementation of economic interests and priorities of adaptation in Ukraine.
Results. To identify the priorities of clustering as a progressive model of regional economic development, the peculiarities of the formation and development of cluster structures in the most developed countries are considered. Peculiarities of cluster formation in the USA, Great Britain, France, Japan, China, and Germany are highlighted. In European countries, about 70% of cluster structures operate in the industrial sector. In India and Japan, more than 65-70% of enterprises are active members of clusters, in the United States; more than 50% of enterprises operate as part of cluster associations. The economies of Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden are affected by clustering, and the activity of creating clusters in China and Southeast Asia has increased significantly.
The characteristic features of the cluster model in each of the countries and the role of clusters in the formation of the country's GDP are revealed. It is established that innovation is the basis of the cluster model in any country. The influence of state regulation and regional programs on the development of cluster formation is noted. It is noted that a few decades ago clustering developed slowly, spontaneously and chaotically, but now it is a powerful tool of interaction between the state, research institutions, business sector, which is implemented through the mechanism of financing research institutions with equipment and resources.
Conclusion. The review of innovative cluster models of developed countries testifies to their focus on innovative development and relevant state policy. Also, clustering, which in itself involves a partnership of participants, can be successful when there is close cooperation of business with different areas and specialization of research institutions that provide development of different types of innovations. The priorities of adaptation of the world experience of the innovative cluster model to the Ukrainian realities are substantiated: sustainable development of small and medium business; brand creation; involvement in cluster formation of regional level institutions, creation of a local cluster structure; long-term perspective of cluster formation.
The article is devoted to the Review of experience of development of the countries concerning Implementation, support and development of clustering as the best opportunity for strengthening and development of small and medium business, Increase of competitiveness of the enterprises, formation of strong international communications. Research of orientations is based on an estimation of world experience from a position of formation and realization of economic interests and priorities of adaptation in Ukraine. The world experience of the innovative cluster model is highlighted. Features of cluster formation in the USA, Great Britain, France, Japan, China, and Germany are considered. The characteristic rids of the cluster model in each of the countries and the role of clusters in the formation of the country’s GDP is revealed. It is established that innovation is the basis of the cluster model in any country. The influence of state regulation and regional programs on the development of cluster formation is noted. The Priorities of adaptation of the WORLD experience of the innovative cluster model to the Ukrainian realities are substantiated: sustainable development of small and medium business; creating a brand; Involvement in clustering of regional level institutions, creation of a local cluster structure; long-term perspective of cluster formation.
Keywords : cluster, cluster formation, innovations, cluster model, world experience, Adaptation priorities, region
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